Three were convicted of murder, and two of “collaboration” with Israel.
Mohammad El Halabi, director of the U.S.-based Christian charity World Vision, has already been in detention for the past six years.
Hamas seized power in 2007, prompting Israel to tighten a blockade of Gaza, a move Egypt supports. Both Israel and Egypt justify the measure with security interests.
At least one Palestinian was killed and another was injured during a raid by Israeli forces in northern West Bank city of Jenin overnight.
The men were alleged to have passed on sensitive and accurate information that would have led to the killing of Palestinian militants by Israel.
The Israeli army has begun sealing off the Palestinian territories ahead of Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement), the holiest holiday on the Jewish calendar.
Palestinians are sending up balloons carrying explosives, hoping the winds would carry them to cause Israel damage.
The cost of fresh produce is already heading upwards as farmers are unable to reach their land.
The U.S. had earlier opposed a Security Council meeting due to be held Friday, saying it did not believe it would support de-escalatory efforts currently underway.
Foreign leaders, including U.S. President Joe Biden, have issued similar calls as Mr Buhari, urging an immediate de-escalation of hostilities and respect for human rights.